Delicious and crunchy nut peanuts are perhaps one of the most famous cultures masquerading as nuts. Peanuts are not a nut from the point of view of Botany, but this does not detract from the useful properties of peanuts that is rich in substances necessary to maintain a healthy lifestyle.
Peanut – a plant of the legume family (Fabaceae) scientific name: Arachis hypogaea. It is an annual herbaceous plant with branching stems, 30-50 cm tall Leaves Dvapara-pinnate, flowers yellow with reddish veins, growing out of the corners of the leaves in 4-7 pieces, but the seeds tied from only the lower flowers.
After self-pollination the flower stalk elongates under the weight of the growing seed, the stalk bends down, while the seed touches the ground. The continued growth of the stem pushes the seed down and the further development of the fetus takes place under the ground. Using 120-150 days from sprouting from the earth dug up all the famous peanut pods.
Other known names of the peanuts – nut, Chinese nut, monkey nut, and pig nut. Despite its name, looks a little reminiscent of peanut walnut rather to the beans. His wrinkled pods contain 3-50 beans. Every seed, like other legumes, can be divided into two halves.
The composition of peanut
The main component of peanuts is fat, their content is (average) 49%, of which monounsaturated 24 g polyunsaturated – 16 g. the Composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids is as follows: 50-60% omega-9 20% – omega-6, 1-3% omega-3 fatty acids.
Amino acid composition of proteins in peanut are very rich in 18 amino acids, this number can be compared only with animal products. Walnut contains essential amino acids – the building blocks from which our body is built. Amino acid composition of proteins of peanuts has beneficial effects on overall health, improves mental health, the immune system.
The trace element composition of groundnut is very rich, contains 25 elements: potassium, phosphorus, boron, vanadium, selenium … .
Useful properties of peanut
Peanut refers to high-calorie foods, so if you are afraid to gain extra pounds, you must exercise caution when taking this product one or two servings a day (serving is 30 g), not more.
Despite the fact that the peanut is dominated by fat, it does not apply to harmful products, causing atherosclerosis, diseases of the cardiovascular system. Fats peanut, represented mainly mono – and polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid (50-66%). In addition, they do not contain harmful cholesterol and contain a lot of phytosterols.
Peanut contains several types of antioxidants (coenzyme Q10, vitamin E, resveratrol, p-coumaric acid). Together they form a strong shield in antioxidant protection, e.g., p-coumaric acid (a polyphenol antioxidant) prevents the formation of nitrosamines, reducing the risk of stomach ulcers; coenzyme Q10, vitamin E reduce free radicals and a number of gene mutations.
One of the most important antioxidants in peanuts is Resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin, possesses anti-inflammatory, antitumor, cardioprotective, decreasing blood sugar, neuroprotective action, reduces the risk of stroke. Resveratrol alters molecular mechanisms in blood vessels (reduces the activity of angiotensin, increases the production of nitric oxide), thereby reducing the risk of stroke.
Walnut peanut contains a lot of Niacin (nicotinic acid, vitamin PP) is the only vitamin, a recognized drug. Lack of Niacin leads to severe disease pellagra. It is also called the disease of the three D – the main symptoms of this disease, dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia (acquired dementia).
Experimental study showed that the use of Niacin and choline, a substance that is also found in peanuts, helps to improve long-term memory and concentration.
Great content in peanut is also of silicon and copper. Silica is required for healthy skin – it provides the synthesis of collagen and elastin, helps to cleanse the body from foreign bacteria. Copper is part of many enzymes, accelerates the metabolism.
Low levels of zinc and copper can lead to premature birth, but if during pregnancy do not forget to eat the peanuts, then abortion is not threatened, it contains both of these trace element.
The dangers of peanuts
Peanuts is one of cultures, which affects the fungal infection (mold) Aspergillus flavus, which produces aflatoxin. Aflatoxin is a very dangerous carcinogen that can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Frying peanuts (roasting) helps reduce the toxin levels in these nuts and thus offers some protection against aflatoxin.
Peanuts other nuts often becomes a cause of allergies. A peanut Allergy is a type of hypersensitivity in some people. Reaction of the immune system can lead to serious physical ailments: vomiting, abdominal pain, edema, redness, anaphylactic shock. In this regard, such people are advised to avoid any food that contain peanuts.
People with food allergies to peanuts began to hope for deliverance from this disease. French scientists have developed the Viaskin Peanut patch, which allows to get rid of peanut allergies.
The principle of its action, in training the immune system. For this patch, which contains microscopic doses of peanut protein paste on the skin of the patient. After 12-18 months of regular wearing the patch, the immune system ceases to see the peanut proteins a threat and when the body receives a large number of nut allergic reactions do not occur. Now the developers of the patch trying to reduce the time needed for wearing the patch.
Ways of eating peanuts
Peanut is usually eaten with fingers splintering the fragile shell. The nuts are also sold without the shell: raw, fried, boiled, pickled, or Podkamenye.
Roasting peanuts not only enhances the taste but also increases by 22% the level of antioxidant p-komarovoj acid and contributes to the destruction of aflatoxin.
Peanut butter has a mild, pleasant taste and aroma. It is made of peanut paste, analogue of butter. In U.S. schools, a sandwich with peanut butter are always included in school Breakfast, including helpful to recognize the properties of peanuts.
Pasta is popular all over the world and widely used as a supplementary food. In the 18th century, long before the study of useful properties of peanuts, the doctors prescribed a paste weakened sick, the elderly, who could no longer eat solid food.
Popular all over the world, Peanut milk, no lactose, its like vegetarians, fasting.
Peanut butter is a healthy source of edible vegetable oil having a high temperature dymlenija. It is widely used in cooking especially in South India and Sri Lanka. Refined oil does not cause allergies.
Peanut flour is popular with chefs, it contains little fat and lots of proteins. Often used as a flavor enhancer.
Roasted and crushed nuts often sprinkled on salads, desserts, particularly ice cream.
Peanuts is the basis for traditional Indian condiment Chutney or paste. It is made from these nuts, chili peppers, salt, coriander leaves, garlic and mustard in India, Sri Lanka. Used to increase appetite.
Selecting and storing
Peanut in the world is grown very much, it is available at markets all year round (presumably in 2013, the harvest of peanut in China alone will reach 16.6 million tons, and in all the world, 37 million tons). Chinese peanuts are large and elongated, but he’s not as good as imported from South America.
You can find different types of peanuts: shelled, unshelled, salted, sweetened, etc. Try to buy untreated, it is typically sold in sealed packages and in bulk bins.
Pods unshelled peanuts should be uniform in size, having a white color, compact form, whole and healthy looking shell, heavy weight. They must be free of cracks, mold, spots and rancid smell. Good peanuts should not rattle in the pods.
If rassasyvanie pod you saw that the seeds covered with the white stuff go away without thinking it is fungus (mold).
Shelled peanuts choose a matte look without Shine, it is made by dry roasting and much more useful. It is better to choose a peanut in opaque (metallic) packages, so it is no longer rancid.
Unshelled peanuts can be stored in a cool dry place for many months. In damp conditions it can be formed fungi – Aspergillus.
Shelled (shelled) peanuts should be placed in a sealed container and store in the fridge to avoid rancidity.